|Urban Poverty Related to Women and Children
The article attempts to point out the problem of urban poverty, or in other words, the problem of the lower-income group who settles in congested areas in Thailand , particularly the degree of the problem that mostly affects the most vunerable groups such as women and children. Firstly, the article deals with the profile or the general situation of urban poor, followed by the most pressing problem for slum dwellers: eviction problem. Thereafter, the most chronic problem of slum dwellers is elaborated. The lack of public utilities and basic services or the necessary basic infrastructure is also still there. Characteristics of urban poor households are also described. The situation of urban poor women, youth and children is described and analyzed in various aspects as follows: education, employment and income generation, family and health (including prenatal care, place of delivery, tetanus toxoid injections, family planning, illness and mental well-being and AIDS). The problems of the urban poor youth are focused on unemployment and illegal drug business/drug addict problem, and early pregnancy. As for the group of children, the focus is on child survival and child development. At the end of the article, the roles of government agencies, private business sector as well as non-governmental organizations in solving urban poverty problem are touched upon. Lastly, suggestions for programme improvements and for the solving of urban poverty problem are discussed and addressed, as from the author's perspectives and approach.
Abstract (59.17 kB) Fulltext (309.32 kB)
Business and Utilization of Data on Educational Attainment of the Population
Data on educational attainment of the population is valuable for the business sector. It reflects the knowledge and the quality of labour force. Importantly, they help to understand the consumers' social class, buying power, consumption behavior, etc. This article describes how to use data on educational attainment from Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand for the business sector. The data could be used for making decision on investment, production, marketing, employment, etc.
During the last decade, school enrollment ratios of four countries tend to increase. The trend is likely to be continued. This means that the labour force and the consumers are becoming better educated. In terms of producers, most of Thai labour force are lowly educated, where as most of Japanese and South Korean labour forces have higher education while most of Taiwanese labour force educational level is in-between. In terms of consumers, Japan has the largest consumer market and the highest buying power. Thailand is the second largest market, however, it has the lowest buying power. Taiwan, the smallest consumer market, is the second to Japan in terms of buying power.
Abstract (57.03 kB) Fulltext (299.08 kB)
Health Situation of Asylum Seekers from Burma in Thailand
This paper provides a documentary review of the health situation of asylum seekers living in camps in Thailand. There are over 100,000 displaced persons living in camps along the western border of Thailand, most of who belong to the Karen ethnic minority. The situation of displaced persons has been of concern to the Thai government for a number of reasons, one of which is the issue of health care. The camp populations are young, with many camp members born and raised inside the camps. Health services in the camps are provided by NGOs, mainly using camp members who they have trained as health workers. Cases that cannot be handled by the camp medical system are referred to Thai health services. Over the years there has been a steady improvement in camp health conditions, particularly with regard to reproductive health services. While there could be even more improvement in this area, the achievements have been considerable. The paper identifies collaboration between the Government, NGOs, and other community groups as being essential in providing comprehensive health services to the migrant communities. Lessons learned in the camps can be used with migrant groups in order to improve the health of all - Thais and non-thais.
Abstract (77.31 kB) Fulltext (210.06 kB)
Post-partum Amenorrhoea in Bangladesh : Levels and Differentials
This paper identifies the effects of various socio-economic and demographic characteristics of mother on the mean duration of postpartum amenorrhoea (PPA)in Bangladesh. Survival analysis as well as the proportional hazard model technique have been applied for this purpose. This study is based on the data of a nation wide survey entitled 'Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 1996-97'. The information of the duration of PPA was collected through 'retrospective' (last but one child) (n=1,851) as well as 'current status' (last child) (n=4,972) reporting.
Findings showed that the mean duration of PPA was lower for the current status data than for the retrospective data, though the difference was statistically insignificant. A longer duration of PPA was observed for the longer duration of breastfeeding, higher parity, and higher age of mother at the birth of child. An inverse association of the duration of PPA was found with the education of husband and wife and high socioeconomic status of household. The study suggests that better nutrition leads to an early resumption of the menstruation. However, the difference obtained from the survival analysis of the trimean duration of PPA was not statistically significant for the same mothers ( n=1,851) who supplied PPA information for both the data sets.
Abstract (61.42 kB)
Knowledge About and Attitudes to HIV/AIDS Among Nurses at a Thai University Teaching Hospital
HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes to HIV/AIDS and HIV-patient care, female commercial sex workers (FCSW) and their health care, and fear of contracting HIV at work among nurses at a Thai teaching hospital were assessed using a questionnaire containing two knowledge and six Likert-type attitude scales. Factor analysis employed to construct validate the attitude scales showed the same factor structure for three of the scales as in an earlier Australian study, demonstrating the robustness of these scales and indicating trans-cultural conceptual equivalence.
Respondents' knowledge levels on transmission and non-transmission routes and precautions to take were reasonable. RNs had significantly more knowledge than ENs and nurse aides. Negative and positive attitudes to HIV-infected people care were equally common. Attitudes to homosexuals and FCSWs were predominantly negative. A majority believed there was a clear risk of contracting the virus at work. As trained staff showed significantly more knowledge than untrained staff, the authors recommend more time be allocated to in-service training using experiential training approaches.
Abstract (82.89 kB) Fulltext (232.17 kB)